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May 23, 2019: Regarding Further Questions About Certain Bitcoin Registrations

The Compendium of U.S. Copyright Office practices provides that an applicant may request expedited consideration of an application by applying for “special handling” pursuant to Sections 207 and 623 of the Compendium of U.S. Copyright Office Practices.


Special handling is offered as an optional service for an additional fee of $800. Under special handling procedures, the Office “will make every attempt to examine the application or the document within five working days thereafter.”


The Copyright Office’s records indicate that special handling was requested in both registration Nos. TXu002136996 (text) and TX0008708058 (computer file) issued to Craig Steven Wright on April 11 and April 13, 2019, and that the Office did accordingly expedite processing of the applications.


May 22, 2019: Questions about Certain Bitcoin Registrations

As a general rule, when the Copyright Office receives an application for registration, the claimant certifies as to the truth of the statements made in the submitted materials. The Copyright Office does not investigate the truth of any statement made.


A registration represents a claim to an interest in a work protected by copyright law, not a determination of the truth of the claims therein. It is possible for multiple, adverse claims to be registered at the Copyright Office. The Copyright Office does not have an opposition procedure for copyright registrations, such as the procedures available at the Patent and Trademark Office for patents and trademark registrations. Disputes over the claims in a registration may be heard before federal courts, including disputes over authorship of a work. Someone who intentionally includes false information in an application may be subject to criminal penalties.


The examination process is primarily focused on determining whether a deposited work is eligible for protection under the Copyright Act and whether the application satisfies the requirements of registration. The Copyright Office will correspond with the claimant to clear up any obvious inconsistencies. The Copyright Office may similarly correspond with a claimant if a deposited work seems to include portions a well-known work whose author is known.


In a case in which a work is registered under a pseudonym, the Copyright Office does not investigate whether there is a provable connection between the claimant and the pseudonymous author.


In the case of the two registrations issued to Mr. Wright, during the examination process, the Office took note of the well-known pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto,” and asked the applicant to confirm that Craig Steven Wright was the author and claimant of the works being registered. Mr. Wright made that confirmation. This correspondence is part of the public registration record.