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§ 234.1 Law student representatives.

(a) Eligibility for appearance -

(1) State law compliance. Any law student who is affiliated with a law school clinic or a pro bono legal services organization with a connection to the student's law school, is qualified under applicable laws governing representation by law students of parties in legal proceedings, and meets the other requirements of this paragraph (a)(1) may appear before the Copyright Claims Board (Board). Applicable law is the law of the jurisdiction that certifies the student to practice law in conjunction with a law school clinic or pro bono legal services organization with a connection to the student's law school.

(2) Pro bono representation. Any law student who appears before the Board must provide representation on a pro bono basis.

(3) Competency. Law student representatives must meet a standard of competency. For the purpose of appearances before the Board, competency includes successful completion of -

(i) The first year of studies at an American Bar Association-accredited law school;

(ii) Training in relevant copyright law, as determined by the supervising clinic or pro bono organization; and

(iii) Review of the Board's regulations found in this subchapter, and of the Copyright Alternative in Small-Claims Enforcement Act of 2020 statutory text, as codified at chapter 15 of title 17 of the United States Code.

(b) Client consent. The law student representative shall have the written consent of the client to appear on that client's behalf.

(c) Attorney supervision. A law student who represents a party in a proceeding before the Board shall be supervised by an attorney who is qualified under applicable state law governing representation by law students, as specified in paragraph (a) of this section. In supervising the law student, the attorney shall adhere to any rules regarding participant conduct.

(d) Confirmation of eligibility. In accordance with the standards of professional conduct set forth in paragraph (j) of this section, the attorney supervising the work of the law student representative is responsible for confirming the law student's eligibility to appear before the Board as set forth in paragraph (a) of this section.

(e) Signature and assent. The law student representative or supervising attorney shall electronically or physically sign each document submitted to the Board on behalf of the law student's client. If the law student representative signs, the law student must identify the name of the supervising attorney on all documents signed by the law student representative. The law student must certify that the law student sought and obtained the supervising attorney's assent to the submission.

(f) Notice of appearance. In any proceeding in which a law student represents a party, a notice of appearance shall be filed identifying both the law student representative and the supervising attorney, unless already identified in the party's claim or response.

(g) Filing documents. All filings by a law student representative shall be made with the knowledge of the supervising attorney, who shall maintain an association with the law student representative in the Board's electronic filing system (eCCB). Supervising attorneys and law students shall maintain their own accounts in eCCB. A notice of withdrawal, and a notice of appearance if applicable, shall be filed whenever the identity of a law student representative or a supervising attorney has changed.

(h) Appearance at hearings and conferences. A supervising attorney shall accompany the law student representative to any hearings and conferences held in the course of the proceeding, absent leave of the Board for the law student to appear without a supervising attorney present.

(i) Responsibility for continuity of case management. The supervising attorney shall be responsible for all aspects of case management, including appearances and withdrawals, as well as continuity of representation during law school term transitions.

(j) Applicability of rules of professional conduct. Law student representatives are equally subject to any rules regarding participant conduct as any other attorney representatives. The supervising attorney has professional responsibility for the actions of the law student representative. The Board may hold supervising attorneys responsible for law student representative activity.

Source: GPO Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) (
Data current as of 08/11/2022